This chapter focuses on the role of diversification in providing stable economic development for organizations under the modern conditions of the cyber economy. The author identifies the main directions in which diversification of the activities of science-driven companies should be supported by the government. The first direction includes a complex set of measures to improve the mechanisms of state regulation, which stimulate the intensive development and implementation of innovative solutions by industrial companies. The second direction proposes the development of national projects for the development and manufacture of industrial science-driven innovative products that conform to the requirements of the sixth and seventh technological modes. The third direction includes state measures to stimulate investment into various sectors of the economy to support the sustainability of innovative development, the creation of systemic elements for the Russian innovative system, and mechanisms to attract assets from nongovernmental sources into the Russian innovative ecosystem to activate new business. In order to evaluate the optimality of these directions for company diversification and their economic effects, proprietary mathematical tools are used, which allow cyber systems to make the corresponding conclusions and evaluations. The chapter illustrates the key role of cyber economic systems. In current conditions, only the effective usage of cyber economic and flexible production systems can ensure a company’s continuing competitiveness and sustainable economic development. © Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019.