Aim: The study of peculiarities of expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the tissues of the endometrium and myometrium in patients with adenomyosis, associated with chronic pelvic pain syndrome. Materials and methods: Uterus macro-preparations obtained after hysterectomy in 60 patients with pelvic pain on a background of diffuse adenomyosis II–III degree were used for morphological examination, and macro-preparations received from 30 women with adenomyosis without pain syndrome. The diagnosis of adenomyosis was confirmed by sonography and magnetic resonance imaging. The expression of VEGF in tissues of the endometrium and myometrium was determined using the immune-histochemical method. The significance of differences of the compared parameters was determined using the criterion of Wilcoxon and Mann–Whitney. The differences were considered statistically significant when p < 0.05. Results: It was found that a higher expression of VEGF is characteristic for patients with pelvic pain associated with adenomyosis, compared to women with adenomyosis and abnormal uterine bleeding, both in epithelial cells of ectopic endometrium (14.7 ± 1.6% against 10.7 ± 1.6%, p < 0.01), and in smooth myocytes of the myometrium (12.6 ± 1.4% against 9.6 ± 1.2%, p < 0.01) and in the stromal cells of the myometrium (10.1 ± 1.9% versus 7.4 ± 1.8%, p < 0.01). Conclusions: An increased expression of VEGF in the tissues of the uterus is one of the most important pathogenetic mechanisms of algogenesis with adenomyosis, associated syndrome of chronic pelvic pain, compared to the silent form of the disease. © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.