A number of C-3 spirocyclic 2-benzazepine analogs of α-phenyl-N-tert- butyl nitrone (PBN) were synthesized and tested for their activity in protecting rat brain mitochondria and dopaminergic (DA) neurons against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA), a toxin inducing destruction of the DA nigro-striatal pathway in rodent models of Parkinson's disease. The newly synthesized nitrone derivatives were firstly investigated for their activity in decreasing the level of hydroxyl radicals generated during 6-OHDA oxidation, and inhibit lipid peroxidation (TBARS assay) and protein carbonyl content (PCC) in rat brain mitochondria. Most of the studied 2-benzazepine nitrones showed inhibitory potencies in both TBARS and PCC assays at least two magnitude orders higher than that of PBN. The data obtained usefully complemented the known structure-activity relationships. In particular, 5 and 10, bearing C-3 spiro cyclopentyl and tetrahydropyranyl moieties, respectively, at 8μM concentration proved to be significantly more effective than PBN in protecting cultured DA neurons exposed to 6-OHDA, which alone causes about 45% cell loss in 24 h. In addition, we found that 5 inhibited butyrylcholinesterase with an IC50 value of 16.8μM, which would enhance its potential as neuroprotective agent in Alzheimer's neurodegeneration. These findings extend the utility of benzazepine-based PBN analogs in the treatment of age-related free radical-mediated disorders. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.