Comparative studies of thermoluminescence and slow fluorescence induction were carried out on leaves of allocytoplasmic hybrids and standard regionalized wheat (cultivar Zarya). There are differences in luminescence indices between these objects correlated to the thermoluminescence and slow fluorescence induction methods. These differences allow estimation of the functional activity of the photosynthetic system. All studied allocytoplasmic hybrids exceeded the standard wheat in both luminescence indices F-M/F-T(slow fluorescence induction) and S-A/S-tot (thermoluminescence) and productivity (height of seedlings, number of ears and grains, grain mass, etc.). The highest values of F-M/F-T and S-A/S-tot and the lowest value of S-C/S-tot were recorded in the allocytoplasmic hybrid Igen 3 x Mironovskaya 808, which is characterized by the highest productivity.