Complications of Acute Acetabular Fractures Surgical Treatment: Systematic Review
Background. The combination of classical anterior and posterior approaches, as well as their modifications, is recognized as the most effective in acetabular fractures surgical treatment. The use of classical and modified approaches is accompanied by serious intra- and postoperative complications associated primarily with the duration of surgery, significant blood loss, tissue trauma, surgical site infection. The aim of review - to determine the main and most frequent complications associated with surgical approaches to the acetabulum. Material and Methods. Access to literature sources is carried out in the information systems and databases PubMed/Medline, Embase, Scopus, Cochran Library, eLibrary, Wiley Online Library. Keywords: acetabular fractures, surgical treatment, approach to the acetabulum, total hip replacement. Results. The most common intraoperative complications are incorrect fragments reduction, sciatic nerve injury, less often - intraarticular implant position, damage to the superior gluteal artery and other vessels, among the early postoperative complications - wound infection, both superficial and deep, less often - venous thrombosis. Late postoperative complications are mainly represented by the development of heterotopic ossification, post-traumatic coxarthrosis, less often revealed aseptic necrosis of the femoral head, residual protrusion and secondary femoral head lesion. Conclusion. The main approach to the acetabulum are the ileo-inguinal and the Kocher-Langenbeck approach, as well as their combination. Complications were more common using two approaches, especially in cases of simultaneous use. The main intraoperative complications are the sciatic nerve and the superior gluteal artery injury with posterior approaches, the femoral lateral cutaneous nerve with expanded ilio-femoral approach, and the obturator nerve with anterior approaches.