Prematurity and early childhood infection of lower respiratory tract as risk factors of developing chronic obstructive bronchopulmonary pathology in adults

The aim of the investigation was to study the impact of prematurity and severe infections of lower respiratory tract suffered in early childhood on the occurrence of chronic bronchopulmonary pathology in young adults. Materials and methods. 25 men took part in the study: 16 adult patients born prematurely (n=10) or suffered infections of lower respiratory tract in early childhood (n=6), and 9 healthy volunteers as a control group. All patients filled in British Medical Research Council (mMRC scale) questionnaires of breathlessness rating, underwent spirometry with bronchodilatation test, 6-minute walk test with determination of blood oxygen saturation level, body plethysmography and examination of lung diffusion capacity. Results. Post-bronchodilator reversible obstruction of the peripheral airways (p<0.05), signs of static hyperinflation (p<0.05), and fibrous changes in the lung parenchyma (p<0.05) were revealed in all participants with bronchopulmonary pathology. Though no statistically significant differences in the influence of prematurity and infections of lower respiratory tract on the function of the respiratory system have been established, structural and functional alterations in the peripheral airways were more marked in the group of prematurely born patients. Statistically significant positive correlations (p<0.05) were revealed between gestation age and body mass at birth and parameters characterizing the function of the peripheral airways, as well as between the indices of static hyperinflation and the intensity of changes in the bronchi. Conclusion. The processes affecting the growth and development of the lungs, such as prematurity and severe infection of the lower respiratory tract suffered in early childhood, result in formation of structural and functional changes of the respiratory system, which promote the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. © 2017, Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy. All rights reserved.

Karnaushkina M.A.1 , Strutinskaya A.D.2 , Ovsyannikov D.Y. 3
Nizhny Novgorod State Medical Academy
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  • 1 Department of Hospital Therapy №2, I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, 2/4 Bolshaya Pirogovskaya st., Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation
  • 2 Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, 1 Ostrovitianov St., Moscow, 117997, Russian Federation
  • 3 Department of Pediatrics, Medical Institute, Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, 6 Miklukho-Maklaya st., Moscow, 117198, Russian Federation
Ключевые слова
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; Infection of the lower respiratory tract; Pulmonary consequences of prematurity
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