Phylogeography of crimean congo hemorrhagic fever virus

Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) is one of the most severe viral zoonozes. It is prevalent throughout Africa, Asia and southern Europe. Limited availability of sequence data has hindered phylogeographic studies. The complete genomic sequence of all three segments of 14 Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus strains isolated from 1958-2000 in Russia, Central Asia and Africa was identified. Each genomic segment was independently subjected to continuous Bayesian phylogeographic analysis. The origin of each genomic segment was traced to Africa about 1,000-5,000 years ago. The virus was first introduced to South and Central Asia in the Middle Ages, and then spread to China, India and Russia. Reverse transfers of genomic segments from Asia to Africa were also observed. The European CCHFV genotype V was introduced to Europe via the Astrakhan region in South Russia 280-400 years ago and subsequently gradually spread westward in Russia, to Turkey and the Balkans less than 150 years ago. Only a few recombination events could be suggested in S and L genomic segments, while segment reassortment was very common. The median height of a non-reassortant phylogenetic tree node was 68-156 years. There were reassortment events within the European CCHFV lineage, but not with viruses from other locations. Therefore, CCHFV in Europe is a recently emerged zoonosis that represents a spillover from the global gene pool. © 2016 Lukashev et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Lukashev A.N. 1, 2, 3 , Klimentov A.S.1, 4 , Smirnova S.E.1 , Dzagurova T.K.1 , Drexler J.F.5, 6 , Gmyl A.P.1
Public Library of Science
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  • 1 Chumakov Institute of Poliomyelitis and Viral Encephalitides, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • 2 Institute of Molecular Medicine, Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • 3 RUDN University, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • 4 D.I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology, N.F. Gamaleya Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • 5 Institute of Virology, University of Bonn Medical Centre, Bonn, Germany
  • 6 German Centre for Infection Research (DZIF), Bonn-Cologne, Germany
Ключевые слова
Africa; Article; Asia; Bayes theorem; China; controlled study; Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus; Europe; gene sequence; gene transfer; genetic reassortment; India; nonhuman; phylogenetic tree; phylogeography; Russian Federation; Turkey (republic); virus genome; virus strain; zoonosis; classification; Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever; genotype; human; isolation and purification; Nairovirus; phylogeny; phylogeography; virology; Africa; Asia; Bayes Theorem; Europe; Genome, Viral; Genotype; Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Crimean-Congo; Hemorrhagic Fever, Crimean; Humans; Phylogeny; Phylogeography
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Lapchinskaya O.A., Katrukha G.S., Gladkikh E.G., Kulyaeva V.V., Coodan P.V., Topolyan A.P., Alferova V.A., Pogozheva V.V., Sukonnikov M.A., Rogozhin E.A., Prokhorenko I.A., Brylev V.A., Korolev A.M., Slyundina M.S., Borisov R.S., Serebryakova M.V., Shuvalov M.V., Ksenofontov A.L., Stoyanova L.G., Osterman I.A., Formanovsky A.A., Tashlitsky V.N., Baratova L.A., Timofeeva A.V., Tyurin A.P.
Russian Journal of Bioorganic Chemistry. Том 42. 2016. С. 664-671