Prognostic value of liver stiffness in decompensated heart failure: results of prospective observational transient elastography-based study
OBJECTIVE: There is growing evidence that liver stiffness (LS) in decompensated heart failure (DHF) is related to congestion, however data about its impact on outcomes are limited. The aim of the study was to evaluate associations and long-term prognostic significance of LS measured by transient elastography (TE) in DHF.METHODS: Single-center prospective observational study of 194 patients hospitalized with DHF, of whom 71 % were male, 68 ± 11 years (mean ± SD), had a left ventricular ejection fraction of 39±14%. LS by TE (FibroScan 502, Echosens, France) was measured on admission (n=176) and/or discharge (n=165). Outcomes of interest were all-cause death or heart transplantation, heart failure (HF) rehospitalisation, heart valve repair surgery. Outcome analysis was performed with Kaplan-Meier survival curves compared by log-rank test and with Cox proportional hazards regression.RESULTS: Median LS on admission and discharge were 11.1 (interquartile range 6.3;22.9) and 8.2 (5.8;14.0) kPa, respectively. Higher LS was associated with more clinical congestion on admission and discharge. Patients with LS on admission ≥11.1 kPa and at discharge ≥8.2 kPa were characterised by more pronounced clinical and echocardiographic signs of right-sided HF. Total of 5 (2.6%) patients died in hospital. Further, 31 (17.3%) deaths, 1 (0.6%) heart transplantation, 3 (1.7%) valve repair surgeries and 54 (30.2%) HF rehospitalizations occurred during follow-up (median 183 days). LS ≥ median was associated with higher probability of HF rehospitalizations and composite end point (all-cause death, heart transplantation, HF rehospitalisation and valve replacement therapy) both on admission (logrank p=0.004 and p=0.006) and at discharge (log-rank p=0.001 and p=0.004). Multivariable Cox regression analysis revealed that on a continuous scale LS increase per 1 kPa on admission was related to higher risk of HF hospitalization (hazard ratio [HR] 1.024, 95% confidential interval [CI] 1.002-1.046, p=0.03). LS at discharge was independently associated with increased all-cause mortality (HR per 1 kPa increase 1.098, 95% CI 1.025-1.176, p=0.008), higher risk of HF hospitalization (HR 1.075, 95% CI 1.035-1.117, p.