Insufficient vascular growth in the area of artificial-material implantation contributes to ischemia, fibrosis, the development of bacterial infections, and tissue necrosis around the graft. The purpose of this study was to evaluate angiogenesis after implantation of polycaprolactone microfiber scaffolds modified by a pCMV-VEGF165-plasmid in rats. Influence of vascularization on scaffold degradation was also examined. We investigated flat microfibrous scaffolds obtained by electrospinning polycaprolactone with incorporation of the pCMV-VEGF-165 plasmid into the microfibers at concentrations of 0.005 ng of plasmid per 1 mg of polycaprolactone (0.005 ng/mg) (LCGroup) and 0.05 ng/mg (HCGroup). The samples were subcutaneously implanted in the interscapular area of rats. On days 7, 16, 33, 46, and 64, the scaffolds were removed, and a histological study with a morphometric evaluation of the density and diameter of the vessels and microfiber diameter was performed. The number of vessels was increased in all groups, as well as the resorption of the scaffold. On day 33, the vascular density in the HCGroup was 42% higher compared to the control group (p = 0.0344). The dose-dependent effect of the pCMV-VEGF165-plasmid was confirmed by enhanced angiogenesis in the HCGroup compared to the LCGroup on day 33 (p-value = 0.0259). We did not find a statistically significant correlation between scaffold degradation rate and vessel growth (the Pearson correlation coefficient was ρ = 0.20, p-value = 0.6134). Functionalization of polycaprolactone by incorporation of the pCMV-VEGF165 plasmid provided improved vascularization within 33 days after implantation, however, vessel growth did not seem to correlate with scaffold degradation rate.