The article addresses the problem of militarization in the Hast Asian region in the context of the unfolding crisis in Japan-China relations. Numerous territorial disputes between China and Japan and other countries in East Asia being divided into two hostile sides in the recent past, the complicated history of the last century along with innumerable military conflicts, the deficiency of effectively operating security organizations in this region, the inequality of economic development between countries, all these factors in the combination with active military policy of the United States and Russia entered a new era of global confrontation, cause conflicts and contradictions of interstate relations in this region. According to the authors, the majority of Asian Pacific countries held a steady course for the accelerated strengthening of the military capability of national armies, and the dominant principle of interstate relations was the ancient Roman principle: "Wish for peace - be prepared for war". A special place in the study was given to compare the military capability of the great powers of East Asia and military plans of the United States. The US determination to establish the missile defense system in East Asia including Taiwan and South Korea in addition to Japan causes an extremely negative reaction in China, Russia and North Korea and their readiness to resume alliance of the Cold war period, and it will provoke a new "arms race" between the major regional powers. The authors note that ail the sides have to develop multilateral directions of cooperation in security and defense field and to sign a number of agreements on strategic arms restriction and disarmament; Japan should refuse to pursue U.S. policy, less appropriate to Japanese interests; and China should reduce the sharpness of historically strong anti-Japanese rhetoric and adopt a more compromising stance on territorial issues to overcome the precritical situation. In the modern era, both countries have a special role in preventing a new Cold war, because its resumption will change precisely East Asia into the main arena of rivalry.