Optimization of Ethanolic Extraction of Enantia chloranta Bark, Phytochemical Composition, Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles, and Antimicrobial Activity

In this study, using the Box–Behnken model, we optimized the ethanolic extraction of phytochemicals from Enantia chloranta bark for the first time, assessed the composition with HPLC-MS/MS, performed the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and characterized them with UV-Vis spectrophotometry, photon cross-correlation spectroscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The antibacterial and antibiotic-resistance reversal properties of optimized extract (O-ECB) and AgNPs were assessed on various microorganisms (15 Gram−, 7 Gram+, and 2 fungi) using the well diffusion method and microbroth dilution assay. The mechanism of action was investigated on growth kinetic and proton pumps of Escherichia coli. The in vivo antimicrobial activity and toxicity were assessed on Galleria mellonella larvae. The optimal mass yield (14.3%) related to the highest antibacterial activity (31 mm vs. S. aureus ATCC 6538) was obtained with the following operating conditions: % EtOH—100%; ratio m/v—20 g/mL; and extraction time—6 h. All the compounds identified in O-ECB were alkaloids and the major constituents were palmatine (51.63%), columbamine +7,8-dihydro-8-hydroxypalmatine (19.21%), jatrorrhizine (11.02%), and pseudocolumbamine (6.33%). Among the minerals found in O-ECB (S, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Mn, Fe, Zn, and Br), Br, Fe, and Cl were the most abundant with mean fluorescence intensities of 4.6529, 3.485,4, and 2.5942 cps/uA, respectively. The synthesized AgNPs revealed a strong absorption plasmon band between 430 and 450 nm and an average hydrodynamic diameter ×50 of 59.74 nm, and the presence of Ag was confirmed by a characteristic peak in the spectrum at the silver Kα line of 22.105 keV. Both O-ECB and AgNPs displayed noteworthy and broad-spectrum antimicrobial activities against 20/24 and 24/24 studied microorganisms, respectively, with recorded minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) ranging from 8 to ≥ 1024 µg/mL and 2 to 64 µg/mL. O-ECB and AgNPs showed antibiofilm properties and significantly enhanced the efficacy of conventional antibiotics against selected multidrug-resistant bacteria, and the mechanistic investigations revealed their interference with bacterial growth kinetic and the inhibition of H+-ATPase proton pumps. LD50s were 40 mg/mL and 0.6 mg/mL for O-ECB and AgNPs, respectively. In conclusion, the current study provides a strong experimental baseline to consider Enantia chlorantha bark and their green synthetized AgNPs as potent antimicrobial compounds in this era of antimicrobial resistance.

Mbarga A.M.J. 1 , Podoprigora I.V. 1 , Marukhlenko A.V. 1 , Morozova M.A. 1 , Goriainov S.V. 1 , Esparza C. 1 , Anyutoulou D.K.L.1 , Kezimana P. 1 , Kamgang N.W. 1 , Tuturov N.S. 1 , Manar R. 1 , Smolyakova L.A. 1 , Souadkia S. 1 , Senyagin A.N. 1 , Ibrahim Khelifi 1 , Khabadze Z.S. 1 , Karnaeva A.S. 1 , Todua Iia M. 1 , Pikina A.P.2 , Gabin A.A.1 , Ndandja D.T.K.1 , Kozhevnikova L.A. 1 , Pilshchikova O.V.1
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  • 1 Российский университет дружбы народов
  • 2 Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University
Ключевые слова
Enantia chlorantha; optimization; silver nanoparticles; antimicrobial; resistance; toxicity
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