The article deals with the problems of social adaptation of primary school students. Each child has his own individual period of adaptation. The duration of the adaptation period is associated with a complex of factors, both external and internal environment, which have a great influence on the mental development of the individual, the realization of opportunities and the disclosure of the individual's potential. Social adaptation in the first grade is one of the most difficult periods in a child's life. In a review paper it is noted that optimum results can be achieved only with the creation of maximum comfortable conditions for development of personality. It is shown that children's relationships can be destructive, which can negatively affect the psychological climate in the classroom, which ultimately reduces the effectiveness of educational activities. Such mental manifestations as isolation, lies, deception, selfishness lead to maladaptation of the student .