O нормировании уровня KIM-1 на содержание креатинина в моче у больных почечно-клеточным раком [On normalizing of urinary KIM-1 level to urine creatinine in patients with renal cell cancer]
KIM-1 (kidney injury molecule 1), a marker of acute kidney injury, is produced by epithelial cells of renal proximal tubules. Elevated KIM-1 levels in urine and plasma are associated with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The aim of this study was to compare the significance of non-normalized uKIM-1 values and those normalized to urine creatinine, as urinary biomarkers in RCC. The uKIM-1, urine creatinine and their ratio (uKIM-1/Cre) were studied in 118 RCC patients and 58 apparently healthy subjects. The median of uKIM-1 in the healthy group was 0.71 ng/ml (1st and 3rd quartiles were 0.35 and 1.23, respectively) and in RCC patients it was 2.36 (1.43; 5.93) ng/ml. The medians of uKIM-1/Cre were 0.77 (0.49; 1.18) and 2.42 (1.41; 4.61) ng/mgCre, respectively. Stage I RCC is statistically significantly different from stages II-III and stage IV using uKIM-1/Cre values (p = 0.0056 and p = 0.0012, respectively); using uKIM-1 values significant differences occur only when comparing stages I and IV (p = 0.015). In both healthy individuals and RCC patients, uKIM-1/Cre levels were slightly lower in subgroups younger than 50 years than in subgroups older than 50 years, whereas a similar trend was observed for uKIM-1 only in patients. In healthy men and male patients, uKIM-1 levels were higher than in the corresponding groups of women (the differences were not statistically significant), but the use of uKIM-1/Cre values eliminated the gender differences. A high correlation was found between the concentrations of uKIM-1 and urine creatinine in three healthy subjects followed up for 3 weeks (Spearman's correlation coefficients were 0.758, 0.825 and 0.933, respectively). The data obtained are clear evidence of the need for normalization uKIM-1 to urine creatinine in RCC patients.