A comprehensive study of the quantitative and qualitative parameters of soil microfungi, bacteria and algae communities in the Apatity city, located in the subarctic zone of Russia, was carried out for the first time. Urban soil samples were taken from various land-use zones (residential, recreational) and compared to arable and forest soils. In the residential zone, a decrease in the number of microfungi in the topsoil horizon to 1.1 thous. CFU/g compared to 22.7 thous. CFU/g in forest soil was revealed. In the residential zone, an increase was found in the number of saprotrophic bacteria to 7.8 million cells g-1 and oligotrophic to 10.9 million cells g-1 compared to 2.6 million cells g-1 and 1.8 million cells g-1 respectively in forest soils. In the recreational zone, the number of soil microorganisms was similar to that in the forest. A decrease in the species diversity of microfungi in the soil of the residential zone and an increase in the diversity of soil algae were revealed. Among the dominant species of fungi in urban soils, atypical species, including pathogenic ones for humans (Penicillium dierckxii, Stachybotris echinatus, Fusarium sp.), were found. In the algal community, diatoms, yellow-green algae, and cyanobacteria appeared in urban soils in comparison with forest soil. As a result of changes in the quantitative and qualitative indicators of soil microbial communities, a decrease in the enzymatic activity of soils has been noted. This may indicate a weakening of the ecosystem functions of urban soils and an increase in the degree of toxicity for living organisms and humans. © 2021 EMUNI Press. All rights reserved.