The current environmental problems require the use of low-energy, environmentally friendly methods and nature-like technologies for the creation of materials. In this work, we aim to study the possibility of the direct biotransformation of fibrillar cellulose by fungi through obtaining a cellulose/mycelium-based biocomposite. The cellulose micro- and nanofibrils were used as the main carbon sources in the solid-phase cultivation of basidiomycete Trametes hirsuta. The cellulose fibrils in this process act as a template for growing mycelium with the formation of well-developed net structure. The biotransformation dynamics of cellulose fibrils were studied with the help of scanning electron microscopy. The appearance of nitrogen in the structure of formed fibers was revealed by elemental analysis and FTIR-spectroscopy. The fibers diameters were estimated based on micrograph analysis and the laser diffraction method. It was shown that the diameter of cellulose fibrils can be tuned by fungi through obtaining cellulose-based mycelium fibers with a narrower diameter-size distribution as compared to the pristine cellulose fibrils. The morphology of the resulting mycelium differed when the micro or nanofibrils were used as a substrate. © 2022 by the authors.Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.