Biopolymeric Nanoparticles–Multifunctional Materials of the Future
Nanotechnology plays an important role in biological research, especially in the development of delivery systems with lower toxicity and greater efficiency. These include not only metallic nanoparticles, but also biopolymeric nanoparticles. Biopolymeric nanoparticles (BPNs) are mainly developed for their provision of several advantages, such as biocompatibility, biodegradability, and minimal toxicity, in addition to the general advantages of nanoparticles. Therefore, given that biopolymers are biodegradable, natural, and environmentally friendly, they have attracted great attention due to their multiple applications in biomedicine, such as drug delivery, antibacterial activity, etc. This review on biopolymeric nanoparticles highlights their various synthesis methods, such as the ionic gelation method, nanoprecipitation method, and microemulsion method. In addition, the review also covers the applications of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles in different areas—especially in the pharmaceutical, biomedical, and agricultural domains. In conclusion, the present review highlights recent advances in the synthesis and applications of biopolymeric nanoparticles and presents both fundamental and applied aspects that can be used for further development in the field of biopolymeric nanoparticles.