Fatty oil accumulation in vegetable soybean seeds and its thin-layer chromatography

This paper studies the accumulation of crude oil (triacylglycerides, monoacylglycerides, diacylglycerides, free fatty acids, phospholipids, tocopherols, pigments, sterols, waxes) in soybean vegetable samples. Samples were taken from two groups: grown in an experimental field and in protected ground of the Federal Scientific Center for Vegetable Growing in the Moscow Region. Both groups were observed in the phase of technical ripeness and in the phase of complete biological ripeness (finally ripe seeds). Soxhlet method as arbitration in analysis was used as suitable for the extraction of lipophilic substances. It was determined that the fat content in the technical ripeness phase in most soybean samples averaged 10.5%. In the phase of biological ripeness, the highest accumulation of fatty oil was observed in Hidaka and Nordic (17.6%). The oil content in vegetable forms of soybeans was consistently lower than that of grain varieties: in the phases of technical and biological ripeness by 55.6% and 22.0% (in relative values) respectively. Thus, he accumulation of oil in seeds is determined mainly genetically. The refractive index of vegetable and oil soybean was established equal on average 1.4755. According to this finding the soybean oil can be classified as semi-drying. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) was used to study the lipophilic components of soybean fatty oil. It was found experimentally that the best separation of the components is achieved using an eluent system: carbon tetrachloride: chloroform in a 2: 3 ratio. It was found that the main fat-soluble compounds are the following (in order of increasing Rf in the chromatogram): phospholipids, monoacylglycerides, triacylglycerides, tocopherols, fatty acid esters. As a finding of the research vegetable soybean cultivated at 55 °N in both technical and biological ripeness phases significantly accumulate crude oil in the seeds. This crude oil contained ω-6, ω-3, phospholipids, and vitamin E. © 2021, Eesti Pollumajandusulikool. All rights reserved.

Shafigullin D.1 , Kask S.2 , Gins M. 1, 3 , Pronina Е.1 , Demyanova-Roy G.4 , Soldatenko A.1
Eesti Pollumajandusulikool
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  • 1 Federal Scientific Vegetable Center, Selektsionnaya Stt, 14, VNIISSOK, Odintsovo region, Moscow, RU143080, Russian Federation
  • 2 University of Tartu, Pärnu College, Ringi 35, Pärnu, EE80012, Estonia
  • 3 Peoples’ Friendship, University of Russia, Miklukho-Maklaya Str. 6, Moscow, RU117198, Russian Federation
  • 4 Kostroma State Agricultural Academy, Uchebnyy Gorodok, 34, Karavayevo, Kostroma Oblast, RU156530, Russian Federation
Ключевые слова
Crude oil; Fat; Glycine max (L.) Merr; Oil content; Thin layer chromatography; Vegetable soybean
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