Degenerative Changes in the Temporomandibular Joint in Elderly Patients with Posterior Edentulous Maxilla and Mandibula According to Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Data.
Aim: This study aimed at assessing the degenerative changes in the Temporomandibular Joint (TMJ)in elderly patients with posterior edentulous maxilla and mandibula according to Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) data. Materials and Methods: The study included 32 patients ( 64 temporomandibular joints) aged from 50 to 81 years (mean age 62 +/- 7.9 years; 16 males and 16 females). TMJs were visualized on reconstructed parasagittal, paracoronal, and axial sections of the joint. The following changes in bone tissue were evaluated: condyle flattening, erosion, sclerosis, subchondral cysts, osteophytes. Joint space was evaluated as well. Results and Discussion: 100% of patients had at least one sign of degenerative changes in TMJ at least on one side. In 19 patients, degenerative symptoms were found only on one side. The most common sign was subchondral cysts. It was noted that the number of degenerative symptoms in male patients was statistically more than in the female group. On the right side, the anterior, superior, and posterior joint spaces had the following values: 2.35 mm, 2.95 mm, and 4.84 mm, respectively. On the left side, the anterior, superior, and posterior joint spaces had the following values: 2.14 mm, 2.3 mm, and 4.1 mm, respectively. Conclusion: Both edentulousness and aging affect the bone structure of TMJ in both genders.