Antibacterial activity of grapefruit peel extracts and green-synthesized silver nanoparticles
Background and Aim: The gradual loss of efficacy of conventional antibiotics is a global issue. Plant material extracts and green-synthesized nanoparticles are among the most promising options to address this problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the antibacterial properties of aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of grapefruit peels as well as their inclusion in green-synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). Materials and Methods: Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts (80% v/v) were prepared, and the volume and mass yields were determined. The synthesis of AgNPs was done in an eco-friendly manner using AgNO3 as a precursor. The nanoparticles were characterized by ultraviolet–vis spectrometry and photon cross-correlation spectroscopy. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was tested on three Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538, clinical Enterococcus faecalis, and S. aureus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (two clinical Escherichia coli) using various concentrations of extracts (100, 50, 25, 12, and 5 mg/mL and 5% dimethyl sulfoxide as negative control). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined using the microdilution method. Modulation of cefazoline and ampicillin on resistant E. coli and S. aureus strains was added to the mixture design response surface methodology with extreme vertices design, with the diameters of inhibition and the fractional inhibitory concentration index as responses and factors, respectively. The antibiotic, the ethanolic extract, and water varied from 0.1 MIC to 0.9 MIC for the first two and from 0 to 0.8 in proportion for the third. Validating the models was done by calculating the absolute average deviation, bias factor, and accuracy factor. Results: The volume yield of the EE and aqueous extract (AE) was 96.2% and 93.8% (v/v), respectively, whereas their mass yields were 7.84% and 9.41% (m/m), respectively. The synthesized AgNPs were very uniform and homogeneous, and their size was dependent on the concentration of AgNO3. The antibacterial activity of the two extracts was dose-dependent, and the largest inhibition diameter was observed for the Gram-positive bacteria (S. aureus ATCC 6538; AE, 12; EE, 16), whereas AgNPs had a greater effect on Gram-negative bacteria. The MICs (mg/mL) of the AEs varied from 3.125 (S. aureus ATCC 6538) to 12.5 (E. coli 1 and E. coli 2), whereas the MICs of the EEs varied from 1.5625 (S. aureus 1, S. aureus ATCC 6538, and E. faecalis) to 6.25 (E. coli 1). There was a significant difference between the MICs of AEs and EEs (p=0.014). The MBCs (mg/mL) of the AEs varied from 12.5 (S. aureus ATCC 6538) to 50 (S. aureus 1), whereas those of the EEs varied from 6.25 (S. aureus 1) to 25 (E. coli 1 and E. faecalis). Ethanolic grapefruit extracts demonstrated an ability to modulate cefazolin on E. coli and S. aureus but were completely indifferent to ampicillin on E. coli. Conclusion: Grapefruit peel extracts and their AgNPs exhibit antibacterial properties that can be exploited for the synthesis of new antimicrobials and their EEs may be efficiently used synergistically with other antibiotics against bacteria with intermediate susceptibility. Copyright: Arsène, et al. Open Access. This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.