This article reconstructs the historical views of the leaders of the Soviet state, V. I. Lenin and I. V. Stalin, as an important component of their ideological projects. The comparison of their views on history is an indicator of differences between the Leninist and Stalinist versions of Soviet ideology. The authors conclude that the continuity of views on the history of Lenin and Stalin is maintained within the framework of the general methodological platform of Marxism (formation theory, class struggle theory, adherence to the macrosocial approach to history). Stalin developed a number of Leninist provisions regarding the understanding of history and, above all, related to the combination of Marxism with the theory of imperialism. At the same time, certain differences are found in content used - mainly the history of European revolutions by Lenin and the history of Russian state-building by Stalin. Lenin placed more emphasis on universal laws of history, while Stalin recognized the originality of the Russian historical process. There were certain differences in emphases on their interpretations of national relations and foreign policy in Russian history. Such differences in views of history were correlated with differences between the tasks Lenin and Stalin faced at different stages of the Soviet project. © 2020 Saint-Petersburg State University. All rights reserved.