This review analyzes studies on the negative effects of antibiotics on reproductive organs and their function. Many experimental studies record the negative effect of certain antibiotics, depending on the dose applied, on spermatogenesis. Unlike drugs of other groups, in which a direct cytotoxic effect on the testicular tissue occurs through a change in the level of hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis or through a direct effect on the testicle itself, when using some antibiotics, most often against the background of the inflammatory process, oxidative stress occurs in the testicular tissues, which leads to dystrophic lesions and violations of spermatogenesis indicators. © 2020 ABC-press Publishing House. All rights reserved.