The work analyzes the prerequisites and preparation of the bill “Rules on parish schools” dated June 13, 1884. The main source in this work is the “Rules on parish schools”, which were approved on June 13, 1884 by Emperor Alexander III. The actions of these rules extended on the territory of the Russian Empire, except for the Riga diocese and the Grand Duchy of Finland. The great importance in the work is given to the “Draft statute on parish schools and an explanatory note to it”. The principle of historicism was used in the work, thanks to it all events were considered in a historical sequence. This made it possible to look at the picture of the events taking place as an integral phenomenon, taking into account the specific historical situation. The problem-chronological method is of great importance in the work, which allowed us, while analyzing the complex process of preparation and legislative implementation of the “Rules on parish schools”, to abstract from neighboring events and consider the studied process in its chronological sequence. In conclusion, the authors state that the “Rules on parish schools” published in 1884 became an important milestone in the formation of an extensive network of primary educational institutions of the Russian Empire. With 1884, there was given the substantial resources and government support to the parish education of the Russian Empire, which made it possible, from almost home education of peasant children, to proceed to the implementation of a planned educational process with the consolidation of the status of a parish school on a par with schools of the Ministry of Public Education. Copyright © 2020 by International Network Center for Fundamental and Applied Research.