The relationship of stomatological health of disabled children with hearing and vision impairment
The issue of preventing various diseases in children with disabilities is relevant around the world. The purpose of the study: to investigate the oral health of disabled children with hearing impairments and with visual impairments and to determine problematic issues of their dental care support. The individual face-to-face questionnaire survey was carried out covering parents (legal representatives) of students of special general education school for children with hearing and visual impairments. The analysis of results of preventive examination of students was implemented by stomatologist. Two categories of students were covered by the study: children with hearing impairment (first group) and children with visual impairment (second group), their families included. The first group consisted of 61 families with disabled children (37 boys (60.7%) and 24 girls (39.3%). The second group included 63 families with disabled children (35 boys (55.6%) and 28 girls (44.4%). The comparable structure of compared groups by age was established. The children aged 10-14 years dominated in both groups: 39.3% in the first one and 57.1% in the second one. The comparison of dental status of disabled children with various disorders of the senses was implemented according number of stomatological indices: caries activity, hygiene level, need for consultation by orthodontist. The patients with poor hygiene were significantly more common among children with visual impairment (38.1%) as compared with children with hearing impairment (3.3%). Also. 77.0% of patients with hearing impairments and 79.4% of patients with visual impairments needed advises of orthodontist. The families of 28.8% and 38.1% of patients in corresponding compared groups resorted to fee-for-service dental services. The first group characterized by statistically significantly higher percentage of dissatisfaction with quality of treatment and prevention (59.0% vs. 38.1%). The second most important problem was dissatisfaction with attitude of stomatologist to patients and their parents, which was noted in 16.4% and 28.6% of cases correspondingly. The stomatological health problems are very relevant for disabled children as they often suffer from oral diseases and have difficulties in accessing quality dental care. The prevalence of caries, especially sub- and de-compensated, in disabled children with visual and hearing impairments is significantly higher than in children population as a whole.