The main directions of integration processes in the post-Soviet space are analyzed in the context of their significance for the countries of the region, defined in the article as Eurasia. The essential characteristic of the concepts of “Eurasianism” and “Eurasian integration” is given. Some scientific approaches to the definition of these concepts are also presented. Particular attention is paid to the two leading international structures in the Eurasia region – the Shanghai Cooperation Organization (SCO) and the Eurasian Economic Union (EAEU). Today, the processes of implementing the ideas of Eurasianism and Eurasian integration are associated, first of all, with the development of the EAEU. But the whole picture looks inferior without taking into account the activities of the SCO. This organization aims to implement interaction between European and Asian states, and, therefore, the ideas that underlie Eurasian integration. The Shanghai Cooperation Organization claims to be actively involved in global affairs, and remains one of the most significant forces in the processes taking place in the Eurasian geopolitical space. The ideas of Eurasian integration that arose more than 100 years ago continue to be an integral part of economic and political rapprochement of the peoples of the former USSR. This process itself is not easy due to both external and internal factors. But in any case, it can be stated with confidence: the Eurasian states are trying to create integration associations in various formats, to solve issues of mutual interest with their help. And this process affects most of the states of the Eurasian continent. The future development of both individual states of Eurasia, and the entire continent as a whole, depends on results of the integration processes promoted within the framework of the EAEU and SCO. © 2021, Russian Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.