To date, various international treaties have been adopted at the universal and regional levels, guaranteeing the protection of every person’s freedom of conscience and religion. Moreover, international monitoring mechanisms have been established to protect this human freedom within the framework of the UN, as well as various regional organizations (OSCE, Council of Europe, African Union). (1) In this article, the authors analyze these mechanisms and identify both positive practices and negative discriminatory practices against Christians—citizens of the states of the Global South. (2) The methodological basis of the study involves a combination of general scientific (dialectical, historical, inductive, deductive, analytical, synthetic) and particular scientific methods (formal–legal, comparative–legal, interpretative, statistical, procedural, and dynamic). (3) The use of these allowed the authors to identify a number of key problems in the indicated discourse and to draw conclusions. With regard to abortion, the authors conclude that current trend is that, in multiple and various ways, states are pressed to prioritize a woman’s right to life, a woman’s freedom of “reproductive choice” over a doctor’s right to freedom of conscience. The situation is similar with the prioritization of the so-called “rights” of LGBT persons in relation to the rights of believing Christians. Moreover, the authors pay much attention to the analysis of the situation of the prosecution and persecution of Christians in the countries of the Global South, especially in Africa. (4) In conclusion, it is noted that various instruments, both political and legal, have been established in international law which make it possible to identify facts of the violation of freedom of religion and call to account for such acts of discrimination, but they are not always effective. © 2021 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.