Male fertility is based on complex intracellular signaling during spermatogenesis. Effect of Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and its homologues on spermatogenesis is actively studied. Nevertheless, its role in idiopathic infertility has not been sufficiently studied, especially in the phase of hypospermatogenesis. Aim: Evaluation of the expression of IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-1ra in human seminiferous tubules in idiopathic infertility. A retrospective study involved men (n=54) who complained of childlessness in a marriage for 2 years with the diagnosis of idiopathic infertility, established after a physical, medico-genetic, biochemical (hormone) and cytological (spermogram) analysis. The biopsy specimens obtained from the operation, as well as the autopsy material of men aged 22-35 years (n=10), were studied using the immunohistochemical method (antibodies: IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-1ra). At hypo-spermatogenesis, the maturation block, and Sertoli-cell syndrome, Leydig cells are marked to IL-1α, IL-1β labeling with a decrease in IL-1ra. Sertoli cells and germ cells show weak responses to IL-1α, IL-1β and their absence on IL-1ra. Thus, the different levels of expression of IL-1α, IL-1β and IL-1ra indicate that these cytokines control spermatogenesis and are one of the triggers in the formation of male infertility form-phases. © 2018 Stavropol State Medical University. All rights reserved.