The study of the social health of labour resources as human capital is an actual problem. In production workers, the vegetative status was studied in terms of heart rate variability. By the concept of autonomic reactivity A.M. Greenberg, the results of the study found that the vegetative status of male employees and workers differs. The employees performing functions related to the organization of the production process showed general sympathicotonia. Workers performing specific production tasks have a general sympathicotonia. The results of the study found that vegetative status makes it possible to assess the social health of production workers. In the context of the intensive introduction of neural networks and nanotechnology into industrial production, the number of employees will increase. As a result, there will be an increase in the likelihood of cardio-respiratory system diseases among this contingent of workers. This will entail the development of corrective programs for the prevention of diseases of the cardiovascular system, and the introduction of changes in the classifier of occupational diseases. © 2020 The Authors, published by EDP Sciences.