The current socio-economic situation in Russia is characterized by the impact of complex foreign policy conditions, the use of international sanctions, and the intensification of global competition. Internal features of Russia’s economic development are associated with the exhaustion of the export-raw material model of development, the impact of a new technological and technological structure, which puts the industrial sector in the task for transition to an innovative development paradigm. On background, high-tech science-intensive enterprises should become the locomotive of the growth of the Russian economy. In this article, the role of high-technology sectors in initiating the processes of innovative development of the economy based on the structural-dynamic analysis of macroeconomic parameters is substantiated, and the main criteria for classifying industries as high-tech sectors are outlined. Economic and statistical analysis of the activity of enterprises of the high-tech sector of the Russian economy was carried out, taking into account international comparisons. The estimation of the basic tendencies of formation of the world’s added value of hi-tech manufactures is given. The main tendencies in formation of perspective points of growth of high-tech sector are revealed. The key factors for successful implementation of the tasks of innovative development of enterprises in the high-tech sector of the economy are identified. In addition, the significance of this study is to develop theoretical and methodological support and justification of scientific and practical measures aimed at the formation of a high-tech sector of the innovation economy. © Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018.