Objective: to investigate the proliferative activity and distribution of pluripotent stem cells in various histological types of amelobrastoma. Materials and methods. The surgical and archival materials of 76 patients with ameloblastoma from the Central Research Institute of Dentistry and Oral Surgery, Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation, were used. Tissue antigens were determined using a rabbit monoclonal antibody against to Ki-67 and SOX2. Results. Proliferating (Ki-67) and pluripotent (SOX2) cells were identified in various histological types of ameloblastoma. A weak significant correlation was found between tumor size, pluripotent stem cells, and cellular proliferative activity. Enhanced cell proliferative activity and extensive bone tissue destruction significantly correlated with the development of recurrent ameloblastoma. Conclusion. The presence of pluripotent stem cells, the proliferative activity of ameloblastoma cells, and the extensiveness of bone tissue destruction allow basal-cell and plexiform options to be considered as the most aggressive indicators.