Prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection are risk factors for bronchial asthma (BA) development. Palivizumab is effective in preventing severe cases of RSV infection in children. Objective of the research: to determine the effect of Palivizumab immunization on the risk of BA development in children with BPD. Materials and methods: out of 510 patients with BPD, 34 were diagnosed with BA on the basis of PRACTALL criteria (Practical Allergology Pediatric Asthma Group) with mandatory allergological confirmation, 263 children received from 1 to 5 injections of Palivizumab during the annual epidemiological season of RSV infection. Results: among children with BPD that did not have BA, 222 patients (90,2%) out of 246 received a complete (≥3 injection) course of immunoprophylaxis, while in patients with BA, only 3 (18%) of 17 (p<0,001). Conclusion: BA development in children with BPD is statistically significantly associated with an incomplete course (<3 injections) of prophylaxis of severe RSV infection with Palivizumab, while a full course of immunoprophylaxis (≥3 injections) statistically significantly reduces the risk of BA (p<0,001). © 2020, Pediatria Ltd. All rights reserved.