Oxidative Stress in Autism Spectrum Disorder

According to the United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as of July 11, 2016, the reported average incidence of children diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) was 1 in 68 (1.46%) among 8-year-old children born in 2004 and living within the 11 monitoring sites’ surveillance areas in the United States of America (USA) in 2012. ASD is a multifaceted neurodevelopmental disorder that is also considered a hidden disability, as, for the most part; there are no apparent morphological differences between children with ASD and typically developing children. ASD is diagnosed based upon a triad of features including impairment in socialization, impairment in language, and repetitive and stereotypic behaviors. The increasing incidence of ASD in the pediatric population and the lack of successful curative therapies make ASD one of the most challenging disorders for medicine. ASD neurobiology is thought to be associated with oxidative stress, as shown by increased levels of reactive oxygen species and increased lipid peroxidation, as well as an increase in other indicators of oxidative stress. Children with ASD diagnosis are considered more vulnerable to oxidative stress because of their imbalance in intracellular and extracellular glutathione levels and decreased glutathione reserve capacity. Several studies have suggested that the redox imbalance and oxidative stress are integral parts of ASD pathophysiology. As such, early assessment and treatment of antioxidant status may result in a better prognosis as it could decrease the oxidative stress in the brain before it can induce more irreversible brain damage. In this review, many aspects of the role of oxidative stress in ASD are discussed, taking into account that the process of oxidative stress may be a target for therapeutic interventions. © 2020, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

Bjørklund G.1 , Meguid N.A.2, 3 , El-Bana M.A.3, 4 , Tinkov A.A. 5, 6, 7 , Saad K.8, 9 , Dadar M.10 , Hemimi M.2, 3 , Skalny A.V. 6, 7, 11, 12 , Hosnedlová B.13, 14 , Kizek R.13, 14 , Osredkar J.15 , Urbina M.A. 16 , Fabjan T.15 , El-Houfey A.A.9, 17, 18 , Kałużna-Czaplińska J.19, 20 , Gątarek P.19, 20 , Chirumbolo S.21, 22
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  • 1 Council for Nutritional and Environmental Medicine (CONEM), Toften 24, Mo i Rana, 8610, Norway
  • 2 Research on Children with Special Needs Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
  • 3 CONEM Egypt Child Brain Research Group, National Research Center, Giza, Egypt
  • 4 Medical Biochemistry Department, National Research Centre, Giza, Egypt
  • 5 Yaroslavl State University, Yaroslavl, Russian Federation
  • 6 Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University), Moscow, Russian Federation
  • 7 IM Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • 8 Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
  • 9 CONEM Upper Egypt Pediatric Research Group, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
  • 10 Razi Vaccine and Serum Research Institute, Agricultural Research, Education and Extension Organization (AREEO), Karaj, Iran
  • 11 Federal Research Centre of Biological Systems and Agro-technologies of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Orenburg, Russian Federation
  • 12 Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 13 CONEM Metallomics Nanomedicine Research Group (CMNRG), Brno, Czech Republic
  • 14 Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Human Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Veterinary and Pharmaceutical Sciences Brno, Brno, Czech Republic
  • 15 Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Biochemistry (KIKKB), Ljubljana University Medical Centre, Ljubljana, Slovenia
  • 16 Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile
  • 17 Department of Community Health Nursing, Faculty of Nursing, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt
  • 18 Department of Community Health Nursing, Sabia University College, Jazan University, Jizan, Saudi Arabia
  • 19 Institute of General and Ecological Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Technical University of Lodz, Lodz, Poland
  • 20 CONEM Poland Chemistry and Nutrition Research Group, Lodz University of Technology, Lodz, Poland
  • 21 Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Verona, Italy
  • 22 CONEM Scientific Secretary, Verona, Italy
Ключевые слова
ASD; Autism; Inflammation; Oxidative stress; Reactive oxygen species
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