Macrophage Modification Strategies for Efficient Cell Therapy
Macrophages, important cells of innate immunity, are known for their phagocytic activity, capability for antigen presentation, and flexible phenotypes. Macrophages are found in all tissues and therefore represent an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of diseases of various etiology. Genetic programming of macrophages is an important issue of modern molecular and cellular medicine. The controllable activation of macrophages towards desirable phenotypes in vivo and in vitro will provide effective treatments for a number of inflammatory and proliferative diseases. This review is focused on the methods for specific alteration of gene expression in macrophages, including the controllable promotion of the desired M1 (pro-inflammatory) or M2 (anti-inflammatory) phenotypes in certain pathologies or model systems. Here we review the strategies of target selection, the methods of vector delivery, and the gene editing approaches used for modification of macrophages.
1 National Medical Research Center for Obstetrics, Gynecology and Perinatology Named after Academician V.I. Kulakov of Ministry of Healthcare of Russian Federation, 4 Oparina StreetMoscow 117997, Russian Federation
2 Department of Histology, Cytology and Embryology, Peoples' Friendship University of Russia, 6 Miklukho-Maklaya StreetMoscow 117198, Russian Federation
3 Department of Histology, Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, Ministry of Healthcare of The Russian Federation, 1 Ostrovitianov StreetMoscow 117997, Russian Federation
4 Scientific Research Institute of Human Morphology, 3 Tsurupa StreetMoscow 117418, Russian Federation