Neuroendocrine hyperplasia of infancy (NEHI) is an interstitial lung disease (ILD) of unknown etiology, which develops in infancy and manifests as persistent tachypnea. Objective of the research: to summarize results of observations of patients with NEHI, including during the pandemic of a new coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19). Materials and methods: clinical and follow-up observation, laboratory and instrumental examination, including lung biopsy, 52 children with NEHI aged from 21 days to 10 years. Results: NEHI more often affects boys in the first 6 months of life; can be diagnosed on the basis of pediatric ILD-syndrome detection; specific CT signs, lung biopsy. It is characterized by undulating course with increased respiratory failurec aused by acute respiratory viral infections, COVID-19; half of the patients need oxygen therapy. © 2020, Pediatria Ltd.. All rights reserved.