Сирийская миграция в Ливан: особенности и проблемы
Статья посвящена изучению сирийской миграции в Ливан. Этот процесс, помимо существенного изменения жизни самого мигранта, оказывает комплексное и разностороннее влияние на развитие принимающего общества, а также на ситуацию в регионе в целом. В результате проведенного исследования был сделан вывод о том, что проблема беженцев является одной из ключевых на Ближнем Востоке. Эффективное управление миграционными процессами позволит создать необходимые условия для соблюдения прав и свобод человека, снятия социальной и политической напряженности.
Syrian migration in Lebanon: peculiarities and problems
The Lebanese Republic is a state that combines both the role of a donor-country of refugees and at the same time a recipient country that provides shelter for forced migrants. Immigration to Lebanon, including migration from neighboring Syria, has increased significantly in recent years due to political and ethno-religious conflicts and armed clashes in the Middle East. The relevance of this issue is determined by the fact that this process, in addition to a significant change in the life of a migrant, has a complex and diverse influence on the development of the host society, as well as on the situation in the region as a whole. The purpose of this study is to reveal features of Syrian migration to Lebanon, determine the internal and external factors that influence on it and trace the impact of this process on the Lebanese society. Based on the documentary sources (documents of the UN, the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the documents of the Lebanese government, official statistics), as well as the materials of the Arab media, the authors show that migration is a complex multifaceted phenomenon associated with various aspects of a society activities. It often causes social, economic, ethnic and religious conflicts between migrants and the local population. The authors note that Syrian migration to Lebanon raises concern to both - the leadership of this small Arab country and ordinary Lebanese, as it has a negative impact on the political and socio-economic situation in the country, exacerbating such problems as labor market tension, unemployment, security, the growth of crime, etc. Alertness towards forced migrants leads to a negative perception of Syrian refugees by the Lebanese society, and sometimes even to conflicts between them. The authors used the works by Russian and foreign experts dealing with migration issue in the Middle East, as well as with the specific socio-economic and political situation in Lebanon. The statistics showing dynamics of the Syrian refugees from the beginning of the “Arab Spring” till nowadays is presented. As a result of the research they concluded that the refugee problem is one of the key problems in the region. It has an impact on the development of the host society and on the socio-economic and demographic changes in the society from which the migration flows. It raises the need for local authorities to solve the problems related to resettlement and accommodation of refugees, their integration into the society, and also requires the co-ordination of the social institutions activities, the ability of the state to guarantee the implementation of laws and ensure the security of both - its own and foreign citizens. Effective management of migration processes will create the necessary conditions for observance of human rights and freedoms, the removal of social and political tensions.