Philosophical Comprehension of Culture and Human Essence
The authors of the article consider the duality of a human being and his relationship with culture. Based on the historical and philosophical material, the authors come to the conclusion that man is a biological being by nature and a sociospiritual, i.e. cultural, being by essence. At the same time, the emphasis is made on the importance of social interactions that beget an individual as homo sapience. Culture, man, society are being formed in the process of spiritual comprehension, a transcendence of existence (M. Heidegger, M. Mamardashvili), resting on religious symbols, metaphysical concepts, and creativity in art. In this regard, the definition of man as a biosocial being seems to be insufficient, for he is a sociocultural, spiritual entity. There is no one outside culture and society in the foundation of which is the symbol-making activity of consciousness (Ernst Cassirer and M. Mamardashvili).