In the article the peculiarities of the linguistic situation of Paraguay are analyzed: the typical lexical units, paraguayisms "the linguistic units of Spanish and Guarani that are contrasted with the spoken Spanish of other countries of Latin America and Spain, which pose certain difficulties of rapid comprehension for Spanish speakers". The description and general classification of paraguayisms is made from several points of view. Formal classification: phonetic paraguayisms; grammatical (morphosyntactic); lexicals (even idioms and turns of speech). Lexico-semantic calcification from the point of view of the appearance of connotations. The linguistic situation of Paraguay is presented as the only one, "ideal bilingualism", with certain nuances of multilingualism. Author rescues some peculiarities, most notable of the Spanish and Guarani of Paraguay. Article first reveals the linguistic units that belong to the lexical paraguayisms of Spanish and Guaraní. The classification of Spanish paraguayisms (occasionalism) is offered. It is stated that lexical paraguayisms belong to idioms fixed expressions whose meanings cannot be deduced from the words that compose it. It is a linguistic custom that allows condensing an idea in a few words and transmitting this concept to all those who share the same language It offers the differentiation between proverbs and idioms. An idiom, on the other hand, of saying, does not educate, does not have that intention. Describe a situation, a personality trait and nothing else. For example: Being a pig or eating more than a remorse. An idiom can be a phrase or a single word Speaking of the Paraguayan Guarani, it is stressed that it is not only the language, but the philosophical stone of the race that reveals its origin and destiny and is based on the own cosmogony set of beliefs, experience that form the culture of the people, among which find the mythical story about the origins of the world or the evolution of the Universe. According to the Guarani, language is something divine because it was invented and given to them by their God, Ñamandú. Pay attention to the importance of careful analysis of the mentality of the Guarani for the correct translation of written and oral texts because the Guarani cosmogony takes us back to the origins of the creation of the world, with a simplicity and simplicity that any reasonably reasonable person can understand without the complications of "mysteries" of which most civilized cultures are full. The historical aspects of the coexistence of Spanish and Guarani are mentioned. The author rescues the most remarkable peculiarities of the Spanish of Paraguay and the Guarani. It is noted that the conquest situation gave certain advantages to the development of the Guaraní. There was no imposition of one culture over the other. On the contrary, both of them went through a mutual process of linguistic enrichment. This condition led to the mixture of two different cultures and languages and the appearance of the "third language" of Paraguay jopará (guarañol, hispanicized Guarani), which de facto is the "main language" of Paraguay today. Some aspects of the formation of jopará are clarified: morphosyntactic, lexical, in the first place. Notice that the characteristics of the Paraguayan linguistic situation are observed not only for the spoken language of the people, but are they reflected in contemporary Paraguayan literature, firstly in Juan Manuel Marcos's novel "Gunter's Winter", one of the ten most outstanding novels in the history of Paraguayan literature. In the base of this novel the functions of the paraguayisms in the literature are shown, its aesthetic value is underlined in the culture, the history and the soul of the Paraguayan people in general.

Российский университет дружбы народов (РУДН)
  • 1 Peoples' Friendship University of Russia (RUDN University)
Ключевые слова
bilingualism; Paraguayan Spanish; Paraguayan Guarani language of images; paraguayisms; semantics; jopara "third Paraguayan language"; "Gunter's Winter"; paraguayismos; bilingüismo; español paraguayo; guaraní paraguayo - lengua de las imágenes; semántica; jopara - "tercera lengua paraguaya"; "El invierno de Gunter"
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