DEVELOPMENT OF JIHAD CONCEPT: MINIMALISM AND MAXIMALISM IN ISLAM
This article discusses evolution of the interpretations of jihad from the angle of two worldview platforms represented in the system of views of intellectuals in the Islamic world - minimalist and maximalist. These platforms differ in their perception of social reality, as well as concepts of truth and justice, which are basic for Islam. Minimalism in general allows critical attitude to the surrounding reality, even in Islamic states, as well as local interpretation of the concepts of truth and justice. Maximalism endorses critical attitude towards reality only in the states where Islamic laws do not apply, and only if approved by the highest religious authorities. Maximalism interprets concepts of truth and justice as universal. In accordance with Islamic moral and ethical norms, both platforms have the right to exist, and the choice between them is an individual matter of every Muslim. As a result, the Islamic communities witness stratification not only of the elite, but also of the Ummah, which is divided into a "systemic" opposition that is ready for a dialogue with the government, and a "non-systemic" opposition that a priori excludes the possibility of a dialogue with the government. According to the authors, the events of the Arab Spring were caused by the spread of the elite's split into the entire Ummah, which created the basis for intra-Islamic tension, which, in its turn, pushed a poorly organized mass of believers into the streets of Arab cities. The authors describe the current stage in the development of the Islamic community as a period of liminality i.e., a structural crisis associated with political and social instability, a change in group and individual forms of self-identification and sharp cognitive dissonance among ordinary believers, coupled with an increasing trend towards re-Islamization in countries of non-canonical Islam.