The paper is a review of the recent studies in the field of identity and its manifestation in communication. Traditionally this term has been explored in philosophy, psychology, sociology and cultural studies. Now it has started to attract the attention of linguists since language is the most essential component of identity. The paper considers different types of identity with the particular focus on lingua-cultural identity and its structural components, amongst which axiological, communicative and emotional ones are most prominent. The paper shows how identity is embedded in language and reveals itself in the speech of native speakers of Russian and English.