Advanced determination of the spatial gradient of human health risk and ecological risk from exposure to As, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soils near the Ventanas Industrial Complex (Puchuncaví, Chile)

The townships of Puchuncaví and Quintero, on the coast of central Chile, have soils contaminated by atmospheric deposition of sulfur dioxide and trace elements from the nearby Ventanas Industrial Complex. The purpose of this study was to evaluate potential human health and ecological risks, by determining the spatial distribution of soil total concentrations arsenic (As), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in these townships. Total concentrations of these elements were determined in 245 topsoil samples, used to generate continuous distribution maps. The background concentrations of Cu, As, Pb, and Zn in the studied soils were 100, 16, 35, and 122 mg kg−1, respectively. The concentrations of Cu, As, and Pb were positively correlated with each other, suggesting that their source is the Ventanas copper smelter. On the other hand, correlations for Zn were weaker than for other trace elements, suggesting low impact of the Ventanas copper smelter on spatial distribution of Zn. Indeed, only 6% of the study area exhibited Zn concentrations above the background level. In contrast, 77, 32 and 35% of the study area presented Cu, As, and Pb concentrations, respectively, above the background level. The carcinogenic risk due to exposure to As was above the threshold value of 10−04 in the population of young children (1–5 years old) on 27% of the study area. These risk values are classified as unacceptable, which require specific intervention by the Chilean government. Based on the estimated concentrations of exchangeable Cu, 10, 15, and 75% of the study area exhibited high, medium, and low phytotoxicity risk, respectively. © 2019 Elsevier LtdCarcinogenic risk for children was above the threshold on 27% of the study area. High, medium, and low phytotoxicity risk was on 10, 15, and 75% of the study area, respectively. © 2019 Elsevier Ltd

Tapia-Gatica J.1 , González-Miranda I.2 , Salgado E.1 , Bravo M.A.3 , Tessini C.4 , Dovletyarova E.A. 5 , Paltseva A.A.6 , Neaman A.1
Elsevier Ltd
  • 1 Escuela de Agronomía, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Quillota, Chile
  • 2 Centro Regional de Innovación Hortofrutícola de Valparaíso (CERES), Quillota, Chile
  • 3 Laboratorio de Química Analítica y Ambiental, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Valparaíso, Chile
  • 4 Laboratorio de Análisis Químico e Instrumental, Departamento de Química, Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María, Valparaíso, Chile
  • 5 Department of Landscape Design and Sustainable Ecosystems, RUDN University, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • 6 PhD Program in Earth and Environmental Sciences, Graduate Center of The City University of New York, New York, United States
Ключевые слова
Carcinogenic risk; Contamination; Phytotoxicity; Smelter; Toxins; Trace elements
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