The role of immune mechanisms in the pathogenesis of almost all human diseases shown in recent decades, increase in antibiotic resistance and secondary immunodeficiency, aging of the population and widespread use of immunosuppressive drugs and procedures suggest a wider use of immunomodulators in current clinical practice, but the use of most of them limits the lack of knowledge. The most promising compounds for the development as immunomodulating agents and adjuvants for a wide range of vaccines are low molecular weight fragments of peptidoglycan - muramylpeptides. The article describes the mechanisms of action of muramylpeptides, their biological effects and properties of medicines developed on their basis. Special emphasis is placed to glucosaminylmuramyl dipeptide registered in the Russian Federation under the trade name Likopid, which is currently the best-studied drug in its group. The results of Likopid studies when used as a prophylactic and therapeutic agent for infections of various localization in adults and children, for oncological diseases and complications of chemotherapy and radiation therapy, psoriasis, atopic and other diseases are presented. It is emphasized that in diseases associated with human papillomavirus and plaque psoriasis, according to current criteria of evidence-based medicine, Likopid should be classified as drug with level A efficacy (high efficiency in 80-100% of patients). High safety of Likopid in adults and children, including newborns, is noted. © 2019 Consilium Medikum. All rights reserved.