Left Atrial Phasic Function in Patients with Hypertension and Recurrent Atrial Fibrillation: Gender Differences of the Relationship with Diastolic Dysfunction and Central Aortic Pressure
Aim. To evaluate gender-related differences of left atrial (LA) phasic function and structural remodeling in conjunction with the parameters of left ventricular (LV) diastolic dysfunction and central aortic pressure in patients with hypertension and recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF). Material and methods. The comparative study included 30 men and 37 women with non-valvular AF, hypertension and LV hypertrophy. Conventional echocardiographic measures were extended with LA measures, including its volume in three phases, LA emptying fraction (LAEF), passive and active ejection fraction. The parameters of central aortic pressure were estimated by applanation tonometry method. Results. No difference was observed between LA and LV structural parameters in men and women. However, in women LAEF (39 [28;50] vs 50 [42;55]%; p=0.02) and E/E'(9.7 [7.8;12] vs 7.1 [5.6;8.6]; p=0.001) were worse than in men. Active LA ejection fraction was higher in women (31 [21;42] vs 24 [19;31]%; p=0.04), whereas passive one - in men (12 [10;14] vs 33 [23;38]%; p<0.001), respectively. Men and women had comparable heart rate (HR), central and peripheral systolic and diastolic pressure, pulse wave velocity (PWV), but women had higher augmentation index (Al) values [33 [28;39] vs 23 [21;28]%; p<0.001], even adjusted by HR (Al-75) (34 [27;39] vs 26 [20;29]%; p<0.001). Only in men PWV weakly correlated with Al-75 (r=0.44; p=0.02 versus r=-0.11; p=0.51, respectively for men and women; intergroup differences: z=2.26; p=0.012). In a multivariate regression analysis in men LAEF was significantly associated with height, weight, E', E/E' and glomerular filtration rate (GFR), whereas in women - with E' and Al-75. Conclusion. Patients of different genders with recurrent AF and hypertension have comparable LA structural remodeling. However, women characterized by a more pronounced decrease in LAEF and impaired LV diastolic function than men. In women as distinct from men LV filling is predominantly due to LA systole. In a multivariate regression analysis in men LAEF was significantly associated with height, weight, E', E/E' and GFR, whereas in women - with E' and Al-75.