Phenotypical and Functional Polymorphism of Liver Resident Macrophages
Liver diseases are one of the main causes of mortality. In this regard, the development of new ways of reparative processes stimulation is relevant. Macrophages play a leading role in the regulation of liver homeostasis in physiological conditions and in pathology. In this regard, the development of new liver treatment methods is impossible without taking into account this cell population. Resident macrophages of the liver, Kupffer cells, represent a unique cell population, first of all, due to their development. Most of the liver macrophages belong to the self-sustaining macrophage cell population, whose origin is not bone marrow. In addition, Kupffer cells are involved in such processes as regulation of hepatocyte proliferation and apoptosis, remodeling of the intercellular matrix, lipid metabolism, protective function, etc. Such a broad spectrum of liver macrophage functions indicates their high functional plasticity. The review summarizes recent data on the development, phenotypic and functional plasticity, and participation in the reparative processes of liver macrophages: resident macrophages (Kupffer cells) and bone marrow-derived macrophages.