Soil carbon 4 per mille

The ‘4 per mille Soils for Food Security and Climate’ was launched at the COP21 with an aspiration to increase global soil organic matter stocks by 4 per 1000 (or 0.4 %) per year as a compensation for the global emissions of greenhouse gases by anthropogenic sources. This paper surveyed the soil organic carbon (SOC) stock estimates and sequestration potentials from 20 regions in the world (New Zealand, Chile, South Africa, Australia, Tanzania, Indonesia, Kenya, Nigeria, India, China Taiwan, South Korea, China Mainland, United States of America, France, Canada, Belgium, England & Wales, Ireland, Scotland, and Russia). We asked whether the 4 per mille initiative is feasible for the region. The outcomes highlight region specific efforts and scopes for soil carbon sequestration. Reported soil C sequestration rates globally show that under best management practices, 4 per mille or even higher sequestration rates can be accomplished. High C sequestration rates (up to 10 per mille) can be achieved for soils with low initial SOC stock (topsoil less than 30 t C ha− 1), and at the first twenty years after implementation of best management practices. In addition, areas which have reached equilibrium will not be able to further increase their sequestration. We found that most studies on SOC sequestration only consider topsoil (up to 0.3 m depth), as it is considered to be most affected by management techniques. The 4 per mille number was based on a blanket calculation of the whole global soil profile C stock, however the potential to increase SOC is mostly on managed agricultural lands. If we consider 4 per mille in the top 1m of global agricultural soils, SOC sequestration is between 2-3 Gt C year− 1, which effectively offset 20–35% of global anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. As a strategy for climate change mitigation, soil carbon sequestration buys time over the next ten to twenty years while other effective sequestration and low carbon technologies become viable. The challenge for cropping farmers is to find disruptive technologies that will further improve soil condition and deliver increased soil carbon. Progress in 4 per mille requires collaboration and communication between scientists, farmers, policy makers, and marketeers. © 2017 The Authors

Minasny B.1 , Malone B.P.1 , McBratney A.B.1 , Angers D.A.2 , Arrouays D.3 , Chambers A.4 , Chaplot V.5 , Chen Z.-S.6 , Cheng K.7 , Das B.S.8 , Field D.J.1 , Gimona A.9 , Hedley C.B.10 , Hong S.Y.11 , Mandal B.12 , Marchant B.P.13 , Martin M.3 , McConkey B.G.2 , Mulder V.L.14 , O'Rourke S.15 , Richer-de-Forges A.C.3 , Odeh I.1 , Padarian J.1 , Paustian K.16 , Pan G.7 , Poggio L.9 , Savin I. 17 , Stolbovoy V.18 , Stockmann U.1 , Sulaeman Y.19 , Tsui C.-C.6 , Vågen T.-G.20 , Van Wesemael B. , Winowiecki L.20
  • 1 Sydney Institute of Agriculture, The University of SydneyNew South Wales, Australia
  • 2 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Québec and Swift Current Research and Development Centres, Canada
  • 3 INRA Orléans, InfoSol Unit, Orléans, France
  • 4 USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, West National Technology Support Center, 1201 NE Lloyd Blvd., Suite 801, Portland, OR 97232-1202, United States
  • 5 Laboratoire d'Océanographie et du Climat: Expérimentations et approches numériques (LOCEAN), IPSL, IRD, CNRS, UPMC, MNHN, UMR 7159 4, place Jussieu, Paris, 75252, France
  • 6 Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan
  • 7 Institute of Resource, Ecosystem and Environment of Agriculture, Nanjing Agricultural University, Nanjing, 210095, China
  • 8 Agricultural & Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, India
  • 9 The James Hutton Institute, Craigiebuckler, Aberdeen, AB15 8QH, United Kingdom
  • 10 Landcare Research – Manaaki Whenua, New Zealand
  • 11 National Institute of Agricultural Science, Rural Development Administration (RDA), Wanju-gun, Jeollabuk-do 55365, South Korea
  • 12 Bidhan Chandra Krishi ViswavidyalayaWest Bengal, India
  • 13 British Geological Survey, Keyworth, United Kingdom
  • 14 Soil Geography and Landscape Group, Wageningen University, Droevendaalsesteeg 3, P.O. Box 47, Wageningen, AA 6700, Netherlands
  • 15 University College Dublin, School Of Biosystems & Food Engineering, Agriculture and Food Science Centre, Belfield, Dublin, Ireland
  • 16 Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Natural Resource Ecology Lab, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, United States
  • 17 People's Friendship University of Russia, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • 18 V.V. Dokuchaev Soil Science Institute, Moscow, Russian Federation
  • 19 Indonesian Agency for Agricultural Research and Development, Indonesian Ministry of Agriculture, Bogor, Indonesia
  • 20 World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF), Nairobi, Kenya
  • 21 Université catholique de Louvain (UCL), Georges Lemaître Centre for Earth and Climate Research, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
Ключевые слова
Climate change; Greenhouse gases; Soil carbon; Soil carbon sequestration
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