The article is devoted to the peculiarities of the political realism theory in the foreign policy of Russia. The aim of the research is to compare the main trends observed in theories close to political realism with the actions of Russia in the world political arena. The preamble of the work presents the systematization of the main types of political realism (classical realism, defensive and offensive realism, neo-realism), in addition, the parameters of a new, non-research constructive realism. The results of research of many scientists developing the theory of political realism are presented in the form of a table. In the main part of the study, using the method of structural and functional analysis, each part is considered within the framework of a system of stable foreign policy views of Russia. As a result, it is concluded what type of theory of political realism correspond to certain steps in the foreign policy of the country. © 2019 Editura Universitaria Craiova. All rights reserved.