Respiratory syncytial virus infection (RSVI) takes a leading place among infectious diseases of the lower respiratory tract in early childhood. The high risk group for severe RSVI includes preterm infants born before the 35th week of gestation under the age of 6 months, children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) and hemodynamically significant congenital heart defects (CHD) up to 2 years of age. Vaccination is not performed. Currently, the only effective and safe medicine of preventing severe RSVI course is passive immunization with humanized monoclonal antibodies – palivizumab. In the Russian Federation, palivizumab is currently registered in two dosage forms – lyophilized and liquid. Both of them have proven by randomized clinical trials efficacy and high safety profile. With equal clinical efficacy and tolerability of palivizumab, its liquid dosage form provides a lower cost of prevention and more convenient use. © 2019, Pediatria Ltd. All rights reserved.