This article is devoted to the study of the mortal images, the eidology of the "other kingdom" in S.A. Yesenin's poetry. Much attention is paid to the theme of death in the poet's artistic world and the discussion that unfolded in philological science around this topic. A short review of folklore formula related to the "borderline" state of man and found its refraction in Yesenin's work is being conducted. The appeal to different genres of folklore (riddle, byl) and ethnographic material (embroidery) allows us to see the figurative structure of Yesenin's poetry differently. The idea of death is important for Russian folklore, it is organic to archaic ideas about the world; it is about that the poet himself wrote in the philosophical treatise "The Keys of Mary". The figures of "Thanatos" are in the same paradigm with figures of "Eros", which allows talking about the motive of death that is cosmic rebirth, ascension. It is in this vein that we should perceive the moral imagery of Yesenin's creativity, and not tie it to absurd and not always proven facts from the biography. © 2017 International Information Institute.