Состояние функции внешнего дыхания у курящих студентов-медиков на основе оценки спирометрических показателей
Курение весьма распространено среди студентов-медиков, причем его интенсивность возрастает в процессе обучения в вузе. Широко известно, что вещества, образующиеся в процессе курения, влияют на организм человека и, следовательно, нормальное функционирование всех систем, особенно органов дыхательной системы. Курение лежит в основе причин широкого спектра заболеваний респираторной и сердечно-сосудистой систем, в том числе хронической обструктивной болезни легких [6, 7]. Риск заболеваний значительно увеличивается, когда человек начинает курить с раннего возраста, когда дыхательная система, механизмы нервной регуляции функции дыхания не до конца функционально сформированы .
Estimation of parameters of external respiration in smoking students
Smoking is a common and wide-spread habit among medical students, and its intensity increases in the process of studying at the university. It is widely known that substances formed in the process of smoking, affect the human’s body and, consequently, the normal functions of all systems, especially the respiratory system. Smoking underlies a wide range of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The risk of disease increases significantly when a person starts smoking in an early age, while the respiratory system, mechanisms of the nerve regulation of the respiratory function, are not fully functionally formed. Unfortunately, the problem of early smoking is becoming more and more relevant, as the number of the young smokers grows every year, and the prevalence of chronic diseases of the respiratory system, is growing in parallel. The aim of our study was to estimate parameters of external respiration in smoking students. By random sampling, 86 students aged from 18 to 23 (38 females, 48 males) were involved in the study. They took computer spirometry with Spirolab in order to achieve the goals. The surveyed, a group of students was divided into 2 groups. The first group was composed of 55 smokers; the second group was a control group of 31 students (who strictly denied the use of tobacco). The external respiration function was studied by computer spirometry on the basis of internationally recognized ATS/ERS recommendations. The investigation of the smoking students has shown that the external respiration function had the following characteristics: in pretest spirometry parameter such as FVC, FEV1, FEV1/VC, PEF, MEF 25-75% were statistically decreased in the first group in smoking student as in students from the second group. Early diagnosis of both structural and functional changes on the part of the respiratory tract, as well as the establishment of appropriate measures for the prevention of morbidity is an important problem not only of modern medicine, but also a significant social problem. Based on the above mentioned, the purpose of the study is to assess the functional state of the respiratory system, determine the characteristics of spirometric indicators in tobacco smoking students.