AIM: To investigate the role of infection in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis using chromatography mass spectrometry analysis.MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study analyzed clinical and laboratory data of 316 urolithiasis patients hospitalized between February 2005 and January 2015. All patients underwent a comprehensive clinical examination, including laboratory tests (hematological and biochemical blood tests, clinical and bacteriological tests of urine) and chromatography mass spectrometry analysis urine and blood. The laboratory testing was carried out both during the patients hospital stay and outpatient follow-up.RESULTS: We analyzed the biological material for the presence of characteristic ions. Urine samples of 316 urolithiasis patients were found to contain activators of "cooperative sensitivity." Moreover, there was a significant increase in the concentration of signaling compounds of the "cooperative sensitivity" of microorganisms in patients with complicated urolithiasis in comparison with the control indices (lactones-0.006 plus/minus 0.0004 mmol/L, normal values less than 0.002, quinolones 0.004 plus/minus 0.0003 mmol/l, normal values - less than 0.002 and furan esters - 0.005 plus/minus 0.0004, normal values less than 0.002). Threshold values of the activators of "cooperative sensitivity" demonstrated the readiness of the microbial community to initiate an inflammatory process. The presence of activators such as lactones, quinolones and furan esters in the samples of urolithiasis patients predisposes to the activation of pathogenic genes in a large group of microorganisms, including gram positive and gram negative species.DISCUSSION: In our opinion, to improve the quality of diagnostic, treatment and preventive measures in patients with different types of stone formation, it is advisable to use chromatography mass spectrometry analysis, which allows determination of priority clinical and laboratory indicators.CONCLUSION: The data on the role of infection in the pathogenesis of urolithiasis obtained by chromatographic methods suggest the possibility of using the indicators of the activators of the "cooperative sensitivity" of microbes in patients with various forms of urolithiasis to assess the disease severity.