By numerically calculating the second-order nonlinear time-dependent equation for the wave phase on a particle trajectory, the effect of the longitudinal (with respect to the external magnetic field) momentum of electrons on the dynamics of their surfatron acceleration by an electromagnetic wave propagating across the external magnetic field in space plasma is analyzed. It is shown that, for strongly relativistic initial values of the longitudinal component of the electron momentum (the other parameters of the problem being fixed), the electrons are trapped into the ultrarelativistic regime of surfatron acceleration within a definite interval of the initial wave phase Ψ(0) on the particle trajectory. It was assumed in the calculations that Ψ(0) ≤ π. For the initial wave phases lying within the interval of 0 < Ψ(0) ≤ π, the electrons are immediately trapped by the wave, whereas at π ≤ Ψ(0) ≤ 0, no electron trapping is observed even at long computation times. This result substantially simplifies estimates of the wave damping caused by particle acceleration. The dynamics of the velocity components, momentum, and relativistic factor of electrons in the course of their ultrarelativistic acceleration are considered. The obtained results present interest for the development of modern concepts of the mechanisms for the generation of ultrarelativistic particles in space plasma, correct interpretation of experimental data on the flows of such particles, explanation of possible reasons for the deviation of the fast particle spectra observed in the heliosphere from the standard power-law scaling, and analysis of the relation between such deviations and the space weather. © 2014, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.