Neutrophilic granulocytes: A new look at "old players" on the immunological field
Modern basic researches demonstrated that neutrophilic granulocytes (NG) are effector and regulatory cells of the innate and adaptive immunity, and play a crucial role in the immunopathogenesis of a wide range of diseases. NG have potent receptor repertoire, providing a connection between them, cells of the immune system, as well as communication with endothelial cells, epithelial and other tissues. NG inducing stimuli activate and promote the translocation of cytoplasmic granules and vesicles surface molecules on the cytoplasmic membrane the secretion of a large spectrum of pro-and anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory cytokines, colony, angiogenic factors and fibrogenic, TNF superfamily members, chemokines, regulatory protein, etc. Chromatin nuclei NG capable of restructuring under the influence of inducing stimuli, which is associated with the expression of multiple cytokine genes. NG receiving complex cytokine influence not only acquire new features, but also in various stages of activation and differentiation processes involved in intracellular intraphagosomalis degranulation and killing of implementing elimination microorganisms and extracellular neutrophil degranulation in the formation neutrophil extracellular traps (NET), while this dying through NETosis. Features NG phenotype and their functional properties, demonstrate the existence of subpopulations of NG with different capabilities: equipment of different receptor, the ability to restructure chromatin expressing cytokine genes and secrete cytokines to implement the contents of the granular system, produce reactive oxygen species, implement cytotoxicity form NET. In our opinion, there subpopulation NG: regulatory; suppressor; proinflammatory - initiating an inflammatory response; inflammation with a positive potential microbicidal (antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal); inflammatory cytotoxic potential of the negative - "aggressive"; anti-inflammation regulating regression; antitumoral - TAN1; pro-tumoral - TAN2; hybrid, combining the characteristics of NG and dendritic cells. The absence of adequate response, or hyperactivation blockade NG functions leads to the development of low-intensity infectious and inflammatory diseases, do not respond to conventional therapy of autoimmune diseases/chronic immune-dependent processes. Remodeling dysfunctions NG - The key to new immunotherapeutic strategies.